Argentine Cadastral Office in Buenos Aires Argentina

Argentine Cadastral Office in Buenos Aires Argentina

Argentina Cadastral Office

Part 1: Country reports



. Country Context


A.1 Geographical Context

To begin with, the Republic of Argentina is located in the southern, western and maritime hemisphere. Actually, its territory comprises a South American continental part, islands and a sector of Antarctica.

Argentine Antarctica lies between 25º and 74º W and south of 60ºS down to the South Pole.

The main features of the Argentine territory are the following:

  • South American continental space: 2,791,810 km2. Most of the economic activity is developed in this area.
  • Antarctic continental space: The population living in this territory belongs to scientific bases and family groups. Its area is 969,464 km2.

For example, the Argentine territory enjoys a great climatic diversity due to its wide latitude, which includes both the Tropic of Capricorn and the geographical South Pole. Additionally, its different climates and the presence of agricultural lands place our country in a privileged position as regards diversified extensive production, especially grains and oil-seeds. For the same reason, it has sectors with excellent natural prairies for cattle raising.

The national situation:

Indeed, Argentina contains a wide range of social-economic spaces. For instance, 80% of the economic activity is concentrated in the “litoral-pampeana” region (littoral-plains), and 45% of the territory is located in a warm climate zone. However, this imbalance is also reflected in population distribution and density, as 30% of the inhabitants are concentrated in 0.1% of the territory. On the other hand, Patagonia, with 4%, is the least populated region, though it comprises over 28% of the total area of the country.

 

Cadastral Office in Buenos Aires Argentina

Cadastral Office in Buenos Aires Argentina

Moreover, its environmental characteristics, population distribution, empty spaces and the present layout of the communications system have caused distant regions to develop their own activity, disregarding economic centers and tending towards self-supply.

As a matter of fact, the geological features of the Argentine continental shelf – of continental and insular nature – are suitable for hydrocarbon generation and trap formation, and for the eventual exploitation of polymetallic nodules. Thus, this makes the platform a future economic factor, which leads to the need for its preservation.

A.2 Historical Context

Actually, several groups populated what is now Argentina at the beginning of the 16th century: Tehuelches, Rehuelches, Rampas, Matacos, Guaycures, Diaguitas, Mapuches, etc.

In 1776 the Viceroyalty of Río de la Plata was created-including today’s Chile, Paraguay, Argentina, Uruguay and part of Bolivia- with Buenos Aires as its capital. Afterward, on 25 May 1810, the Cabildo of Buenos Aires deposed the viceroy and announced that it was governing henceforth on behalf of King Fernando VII, the captive of Napoleon.

Cadastral Office in Buenos Aires Argentina

Cadastral Office in Buenos Aires Argentina

Then, representatives of the various provinces convened at Tucumán in March 1816. On the following July 9, the delegates proclaimed independence from Spanish rule and declared the formation of the United Provinces of South America (later United Provinces of the Río de la Plata).

In fact, another coup occurred in 1943, after which Juan Domingo Perón, a key figure in the coup, emerged as the country’s leader. Likewise, he encouraged the growth of labor unions and raised wages, and in 1946 he was elected president. Indeed, Perón and his wife, Eva ( Evita ), who was a champion of social welfare programs, were immensely popular among the masses, but as the economy deteriorated Perón became increasingly autocratic. However, his efforts to secularize the nation brought him into conflict with the Roman Catholic Church and alienated his military officers; he was overthrown in 1955.

Nevertheless, after a series of military governments, Perón was allowed to return to power in 1973, but he died in 1974, leaving his second wife, Isabel, who had no political experience. Isabel led the military to take power in 1976. Then, the army embarked upon its own “dirty war” against those it considered subversive. Consequently, thousands were murdered or disappeared.

Since 1983 until now, Argentina has a democratic government.

 

A.3 Current Political and Administrative Structures

Above all, Argentina is a federation of 23 provinces, plus the Federal Capital District (Buenos Aires City). In fact, since 1983, the country’s democratic institutions have achieved unprecedented stability, and military intervention no longer appears even a remote prospect. Also, the system of government (at both the federal and provincial levels) is based on the “separation of powers” into 3 distinct branches: the Executive branch, the Legislative branch, and the Judiciary. However, no member of one branch of government can simultaneously perform official duties in another.

For instance, at the federal level, the Executive branch comprises a President, a Vice-President and a Cabinet of Ministers. The President and Vice-President are chosen by direct popular vote for a four-year term. One consecutive re-election is permitted. The ministers are appointed by the President.

Similarly, the Federal Legislative branch consists of a bicameral Congress. The two houses are the Senate and the Chamber of Deputies. For instance, the Senate is made up of 72 senators: 3 per province, chosen by the respective provincial legislatures, and 3 senators for the Federal Capital District, chosen by direct popular vote, all for a six-year term. Also, the Chamber of Deputies is made up of 257 deputies, chosen by direct popular vote for a four-year term.

Last, the Federal Judiciary consists of trial courts, appeals courts, and one Supreme Court.

A.4 Historical Outline of Cadastral System

Indeed, the Argentinean Cadastre completes an important role in society and had a long history of development over many years.  Additionally, it has advanced significantly and expansively over the last few years due to the technological advances in geo-information on the one hand. On the other hand, due to the possibility of realizing cadastral development projects that have been carried out in the majority of provinces, either with World Bank finance or provincial contributions.

In other words, the implementation in the cadastres of Land Information Systems orientated toward the multi-purpose cadastre, has increased their potential significance in respect of the services they provide to society.

B. Institutional Framework


B.1 Government Organizations

 

The current situation is as follows:

Provinces and Autonomous City of Buenos Aires Name of the Organization Ministry
Buenos Aires Provincial Directorate of Territorial Cadastre Ministry of Economy
Catamarca General Cadastre Administration Ministry of Economy and Finances.
Chaco Provincial Directorate of Cadastre and Cartography Planning Secretary Chubut Cadastre and Land Information Directorate Ministry Of Government, Work, and Justice Córdoba Directorate of Cadastre Ministry of Finance Corrientes General Cadastre Directorate Ministry of Finance, Works and Public Services.
Entre Ríos General Cadastre Directorate Ministry of Finance.
Formosa General Directorate of Territorial Cadastre Ministry of Economy, Works, and Public Services.
Gobierno de la Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires Directorate of Cadastre Secretary of Urban Planning and Environment.
Jujuy General Directorate of Immovables Ministry of Finance.
La Pampa General Directorate of Cadastre Ministry of Economy and Finances.
La Rioja Provincial Cadastre Directorate Ministry Coordinator of Government
Mendoza Provincial Cadastre Directorate Ministry of Finance.
Misiones General Directorate of Cadastre of the Misiones Province State Secretary of Economy, Finances, Works and Public Services.
Neuquén General Directorate of Cadastre Ministry of Finance, Works and Public Services.
Río Negro Dirección General de Catastro e Información Territorial Ministry of Economy
Salta Dirección General de Inmuebles Ministry of Finance.
San Juan Provincial Cadastre Directorate Ministry of Works, Public Services and Environment.
San Luis Provincial Directorate of Geodesy and Cadastre State Ministry of Economy Santa Cruz General Directorate of Cadastre Ministry of Economy and Public Services.
Santa Fe Cadastre and Land Information Service. Ministry of Economy and Finances.
Santiago del Estero Provincial Cadastre Directorate Ministry of Economy, Production and Environment Tierra del Fuego General Directorate of Cadastre and Fiscal Land Ministry of Works, Public Services.
Tucumán Provincial Cadastre Directorate Ministry of Economy

B.2 Private Sector Involvement

Actually, regarding private sector involvement, parcel, division, unification, amalgamation, land consolidation, and other cadastral operations require private land surveyors.

In fact, a Notary Public would carry out equivalent procedures. In addition to deeds, easements, mortgages and other documents regarding land.

B.3 Professional Organization or Association

Above all, the Cadastral Federal Council is the body consisting of 24 members, corresponding to the cadastral organizations of all the (23) provinces and the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires.

Indeed, since there are cadastral organizations in the provinces, there are also institutions in each province that embrace professionals that perform cadastral tasks. Similarly, such institutions are part of a national body called FADA, which is a member of FIG.

For instance, FADA has approximately 3,500 professionals in the country.

B.4 Licensing

There isn’t a specific licensing regime for cadastral surveying professionals working in the cadastral system. However, a college degree is one of the main requirements.

Moreover, the provinces have delegated control of the professional activities in institutions integrated by the professionals of their jurisdictions. For instance, such institutions, that are FADA’ members, verify the required conditions for carrying out professionals’ tasks.

Actually, there is one Institution for each province and one for the autonomous city of Buenos Aires. For instance, in some cases, they group together land surveyors, engineers, and other related professions.

B.5 Education

Actually, there are twelve Universities offering the degree of Land surveyor. Approximately five students per University graduate each year.

C. Cadastral System


C.1 Purpose of Cadastral System

The cadastral system covers different roles. For example, legal  (land transfer, land market), fiscal (land valuation, land tax), and multiple purpose role (planning, local government). Indeed, as each province has its own cadastre the emphasis in the roles mentioned above varies according to the province, mainly in the multipurpose one.

C.2 Types of Cadastral System

As Argentina is a Federal Country there is a Provincial Cadastral Organization in each province and in the Autonomous City of Buenos Aires.

Nevertheless, the scope of the cadastral systems of the province has been mentioned above.

 

C.3 Cadastral Concept

As a matter of fact, the concept of Cadastre in Argentina is equivalent to the definition in FIG, 1995.

C.4 Content of Cadastral System

For example, a parcel is the common registration unit for cadastres in Argentina.

Additionally, it is all land parcel division, unification, amalgamation, etc. must be registered in the cadastral organization.  Also, horizontal property units are registered.

 

D. Cadastral Mapping


D.1 Cadastral Map

Most importantly, cadastral maps cover urban and rural areas. For example, urban maps have mainly geo-reference, administrative and parcel boundaries. Also, buildings and complementary improvements.

In other words, rural maps are basically integrated by geo-reference, administrative and parcel boundaries and topographic data.

D.2 Example of a Cadastral Map

Furthermore, this is an example of a rural cadastral map is illustrated with one of the provinces (Chubut).

D.3 Role of Cadastral Layer in SDI

Last modified on 05-Sep-2003

As a matter of fact, the Cadastral Federal Council, FADA, and other organizations make an effort to disseminate the importance of cadastre as a fundamental component of the SDI development in the Country.

For example, taking into account the proposed solutions for such problems, in 2002 the Cadastral Federal Council and FADA presented a Project of National Cadastral Law. In fact, this project includes the role of cadastre as a fundamental component of the SDI development in the Country.

E. Reform issues


E.1 Cadastral Issues

First, complete the development of the Land Information Systems started in the ’90s and carried out through World Bank loans in most of the provinces of the Country.

Next, guarantee the sustainability of the Land Information Systems.

Last, overcome the identified problems by the provinces in a survey carried out for the Cadastre area of the National office of the Interior Ministry.

E.2 Current Initiatives

Above all, strengthen the Cadastral Federal Council in order to comply with a wider range of requirements.

  • Firstly, make efforts in order to achieve, as soon as possible, the new National Law of Cadastre.
  • Also, disseminate the results of the above-mentioned survey.
  • Last, increase the coordination, cooperation, and communication among cadastral organizations and related ones, in order to improve their capacity building.

F. References


In conclusion, for drawing up the questionnaire, the following people and organizations contributed.

  • Cadastral Sector (responsible for World Bank projects), Interior Ministry. Contact persons: Myriam Urtubey, ([email protected]) and Roberto Do Cabo (bosco(at)@interar.com.ar)
  • Hilda Gismano (hgismano(at)criba.edu.ar), Coordinator of the National Council of Land Surveying Schools (CONEA). Topic of contribution, Education.
  • Norberto Frickx (ingfrickx(at)arnet.com.ar, President of the National Federation of Surveyors), Topic of contribution, Professional Organization.

 

Part 2: Cadastral Principles and Statistics



1. Cadastral Principles


1.1 Type of registration system


title registration
deeds registration

1.2 Legal requirement for registration of land ownership


compulsory
optional

1.4 Approach for the establishment of cadastral records




systematic
sporadic
both, systematic and sporadic
all properties already registered

 

2. Cadastral Statistics


2.1 Population

36,223,900

2.2a Population distribution: percentage of the population living in urban areas

89

2.2b Population distribution: percentage of the population living in rural areas

11

2.3 Number of land parcels

13,489,500
— Number of land parcels per 1 million population
372,300

2.4 Number of registered strata titles/condominium units

0
— Number of strata titles/condominium units per 1 million population
0

2.5 Legal status of land parcels in URBAN areas:

percentage of parcels that are properly registered and surveyed
0
percentage of parcels that are legally occupied, but not registered or surveyed
0
percentage of parcels that are informally occupied without legal title
0

2.6 Legal status of land parcels in RURAL areas:

percentage of parcels that are properly registered and surveyed
0
percentage of parcels that are legally occupied, but not registered or surveyed
0
percentage of parcels that are informally occupied without legal title
0

2.7 Number of active professional land surveyors

0

2.8 Proportion of time that active professional land surveyors commit for cadastral matters (%)

0
— Approx. full-time equivalent of land surveyors committed to cadastral matters
0

2.9 Number of active lawyers/solicitors

0

2.10 Proportion of time that active lawyers/solicitors commit for cadastral matters (%)

0








 

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